‘Ook met versobering salderen blijft investering in zonnepanelen interessant’

AMSTERDAM – Ook als de salderingsregeling na 2017 wordt versoberd, blijven zonnepanelen interessant om aan te schaffen.

Zonnepanelen op huizen in Duitsland
C: Gerhlicher Solar

Dit verklaart Wilfried van Sark van de Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom, tevens verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht als onderzoeker zonne-energie.

“Dankzij de stabiel lage prijs per wattpiek blijft het interessant nu te investeren in zonne-energie”, aldus Van Sark. Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom voert elk kwartaal een onderzoek naar de prijs van zonnepanelen uit. 

Minister Henk Kamp (Economische Zaken) verklaarde onlangs dat salderen vanaf 2017 wordt geëvalueerd en vanaf 2020 wordt versoberd. Volgens de minister kost salderen de overheid enkele tientallen miljoenen per jaar en komt dit vooral ten goede aan hogere inkomens.

Kleinverbruikers van elektriciteit die hun zonne-energie terugleveren aan het net, mogen de opgewekte stroom salderen (‘wegstrepen’) van hun eigen gebruik. “Ze krijgen daar dus geld voor. Omgerekend betalen ze slechts gemiddeld 15 tot 17 eurocent per kilowattuur”, rekent de onderzoeker voor.

“Kopers betalen dus een prijs die zodanig is dat zonne-energiesystemen grid parity vertonen, wat wil zeggen dat ze met hun zonnestroom goedkoper uit zijn dan de elektriciteitsprijs die de consument nu betaalt van 23 eurocent per kilowattuur

Stabilisering prijs van zonnepanelen

Opvallend is dat de gemiddelde prijs van zonnestroom per wattpiek zich heeft gestabiliseerd. Vanaf 2012 maakt de prijs van panelen een aanzienlijke val door van circa 2,2 euro naar 1,3 euro per wattpiek. Omgerekend een halvering van de aanschafprijs van een gemiddeld zonnepaneel van circa 500 naar 250 euro.

Niet alleen de prijs van zonnepanelen heeft een prijsdaling doorgemaakt. Ook omvormers, een essentieel onderdeel voor een zonnesysteem, zijn goedkoper geworden. De solaronderzoeker bespeurt eveneens een, volgens hem in dit geval ‘gezonde’, prijsdaling van jaarlijks circa 10 procent (de gemiddelde prijs in april 2014 was 37 eurocent per wattpiek) bij omvormers. “Deze prijsdaling is het gevolg van een grootschaliger toepassing van zonne-energie. Massaproductie heeft omvormers zeker goedkoper gemaakt.”

Volgens Van Sark zal de groei van zonnestroom doorzetten. Eerder berichtte het CBS dat er in ons land eind vorig jaar welgeteld 722 megawatt aan zonnestroomcapaciteit staat opgesteld, in 2012 was dat nog maar 365 megawatt. “De toename van zonne-energie is geweldig”, aldus Van Sark. 

Nieuwkomers eisen deel van de taart

Het gevolg van de gunstig ontwikkelende markt is dat meer aanbieders zich melden naast de gevestigde orde. Van Sark schat het aantal leveranciers van zonne-energiesystemen op rond de duizend. “De nieuwkomers eisen hun deel van de taart op.” De keerzijde hiervan is, waarschuwt hij, dat ook ‘cowboys’ in de solarmarkt actief worden. Dat zijn partijen die er bijvoorbeeld niet voor terugdeinzen voorraden PV-panelen op de markt te brengen die niet meer aan de specificaties voldoen, omdat ze bijvoorbeeld zijn beschadigd tijdens zeetransport.

“De kwaliteit van op de markt gebrachte systemen en de installatie daarvan verdient daarom de hoogste aandacht, een punt van zorg dat ook door de sector zelf wordt erkend. Panelen zelf hebben een kwaliteitskeurmerk”, betoogt Van Sark, “Maar het groter geworden aanbod maakt het voor kopers niet eenvoudig de kwaliteit en prestaties van systemen te doorgronden. En omdat het aanbod van verschillende systemen zo groot is, zal het testen ervan niet te doen zijn. Dat wordt erg kostbaar en tijdrovend, want je bent zo een jaar verder.”

Vraag hier uw gratis offerte aan voor zonnepanelen (Advertorial)

Fabricage van zonnepanelen

Ook zonnepanelen die voldoen aan de internationale elektrotechnische kwaliteitsnormen (IEC) kunnen fouten vertonen. Uit een in april dit jaar verschenen inventarisatie van het Internationaal Energie Agentschap (IEA) komt naar voren dat er bij de fabricage van zonnepanelen veel mis kan gaan. Zo worden panelen door producenten onvoldoende zwaar getest op winterse omstandigheden.

“Pas sinds kort testen de, wat ik noem, goede fabrikanten hun panelen aan het eind van het productieproces met behulp van elektroluminescentie om defecte cellen in hun panelen te identificeren. Dat gebeurt onder de toenemende druk van investeerders en banken die niet het risico willen lopen dat de prestaties van panelen onvoldoende blijken of sneller minder worden dan beloofd. Ik denk dat dit een eerste goede stap is. Kwaliteit moet op het netvlies komen en daar blijven staan.”

De prijs en kwaliteit van zonnestroomsystemen komen aan bod in het dagelijkse lezingenprogramma dat Holland Solar, deelnemer in de Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom, organiseert tijdens het Solar Event, dat plaatsvindt tijdens de vakbeurs Energie 2014 in oktober in Den Bosch. 

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